Instructional Strategies Meta-Reflection

Throughout this course the readings, lectures, and reflections have reviewed teaching techniques educators practice in the classroom. These strategies are grouped together in broader models, so teachers have the opportunity to learn and assess how to apply the instructional approaches. Joyce, Weil, and Calhoun (2015) categorize the four main models as: 1) the information-processing family; 2) the social family; 3) the personal family; and 4) the behavioral systems family.

Information-processing models are important because people strive to make sense of information by organizing their knowledge, applying critical thinking skills, and attempting to solve problems (Joyce, Weil, and Calhoun, 2015, p. 10). The scientific inquiry approach is a natural instructional strategy for me to include in my classroom.The_Scientific_Method_as_an_Ongoing_Process.svg This approach primarily focuses on science-related lessons, but I think it should be used in many different subjects. Advantages of this approach include that it allows students to experience hands-on practice and teachers are encouraged to seek “cross-cutting”concepts to identify content that is similar to other subjects (Joyce, Weil, and Calhoun, 2015, p. 72).The steps are also applicable for students when they try to solve problems outside of school. Additionally, I hope that the more practice students have using the scientific inquiry process will further benefit them in their future Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics endeavors.

Social model strategies promote a positive cooperative learning environment in which students interact during supportive learning activities (Joyce, Weil, and Calhoun, 2015, p. 12). Creating and consistently using a cooperative learning approach is very important to me when I begin teaching. The world has advanced to a global society and successful interactions requires the ability to work with people of different cultures, beliefs, and values. Cooperative learning activities should incorporate elements of positive interdependence so students can reflect on how everyone’s effort is significant and individual accountability so students recognize how their individual contribution impacted the group (Dean, Hubbell, Pitler, & Stone, 2012, p. 37). Cooperative learning activities also keep students actively thinking and they learn how to communicate their understanding and knowledge with others.

The strategies discussed in personal and behavioral systems families are crucial as well, although I think of those approaches more often at an independent, personalized level for students. Information-processing and social models requires more planning at a broader classroom approach. I look forward to discovering more about these models, instructional techniques, and experiencing how students respond to certain strategies.


Dean, C., Hubbell, E., Pitler, H., & Stone, Bj. (2012). Classroom Instruction that Works (2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Joyce, B., Weil, M., & Calhoun, E. (2015). Models of Teaching (9th ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson.


The Learning Process

One of my goals is to understand how people learn so I can practice more effective teaching methods. A standard teaching strategy generally involves a teacher providing information to students and expecting them to memorize everything. Next, the teacher assigns homework or worksheets focused on fact-based information. At the end of a unit, students usually complete a multiple-choice test to evaluate how well they have remembered specific facts. This is a repetitive process that rarely advances a student’s thinking skills. It is not my intention to primarily use a memorization strategy, but I do believe memorization is an important part of the learning process. A major teaching objective is to help my students learn how to remember what they are taught and to know how that information will eventually assist them in critical thinking.

Students can practice a variety of memorization techniques depending on what they are attempting to remember. Joyce, Weil, & Calhoun (2015) present a four-phase process to help students memorize information. The four phases of memorization are: 1) attending to the material; 2) identifying connections; 3) using techniques to expand sensory images; and 4) practicing recalling the information until it is completely learned (Joyce, Weil, & Calhoun, 2015).The strategy used in each phase will depend on what type of content is being taught and learned. Eventually students learn which strategies are best applied to what they want to memorize.

Memorization is an important part of the learning process because students scaffold their knowledge and thoughts before applying different thinking strategies. Benjamin Bloom’s Taxonomy of the Intellectual Processes aptly describes how the learning and thinking process develops. Bloom’s original model of taxonomy was created in 1956. The 1956 model categorizes the learning process into six domains, with knowledge as the first domain to be mastered before achieving success at higher levels (Armstrong, 2016). In 2001, the categories were relabeled as verbs in order to more distinctly demonstrate how people discover and apply their knowledge (Armstrong, 2016). Figures 1 and 2 below are examples of the original and revised versions. Both images include a short description explaining how learning occurs in each category.

Figure 1: Original Version from 1956. (Image retrieved from


Figure 2: Revised version from 2001. (Armstrong, 2016).


As shown in both models, memorization is a significant part of the learning process since it must be mastered before moving up to the next level. Once students remember and understand knowledge, then I can apply other teaching strategies that guide students to a deeper thinking process. Bloom’s Taxonomy is a valuable resource for me to reference when planning lessons and to assess where my students are in the learning process. It is also important to share this model with students so they are cognizant of how their learning progresses overtime. I believe once students are aware of how learning occurs, then they will be more successful at mastering each level.


Armstrong, P. (2016). Bloom’s Taxonomy. Retrieved from:

Joyce, B., Weil, M., & Calhoun, E. (2015). Models of Teaching (9th ed.). Upper Sadle River, New Jersey: Pearson.

Student Affairs, University of Alaska Anchorage. (2012). The Assessment Cycle. Retrieved from:

EDU 6120: Final Foundations

Question: Many of the authors we study contend that the most important goals of education are to improve the moral and social fabric of student and to raise academic achievement. Explain what this means to you and provide illustrations showing how these goals might be best attained. 

The American public education system serves multiple purposes. When parents send their children to school, it assumed the primary reason is so children learn academic skills to prepare them for the future. While academics do consume the majority of a student’s day, students also learn social skills and societal values during the school day. It is important for teachers to identify opportunities to teach social and moral character while preparing academic lessons.

Arthur Foshay identifies four learning areas that teachers are obligated to recognize as part of a student’s education. The four areas are: 1) academic coping skills; 2) character development skills; 3) citizenship skills; and 4) self-realization skills (Ellis, Session 6, p. 3). These four skill areas align with purpose of education: academic, social, and moral lessons. For example, academic achievement is influenced by academic coping skills, characters development skills, and self-realization skills. Acquiring academic coping skills helps students since they learn the foundations of certain subjects and how to effective study habits. Character development and self-realization relate to academics because these skills teach students perseverance when schoolwork becomes challenging.

Similarly, values and morals are taught when students learn character development skills, citizenship skills, and self-realization skills. Part of developing one’s character is deciding certain values to live by and self-realization occurs in situations when students have to follow their values. If a student believes cheating on tests is wrong and discovers their friend cheated, then this situation becomes a personal dilemma. That student must decide to either inform the teacher or talk to their friend first. These types of situations test a person’s morals and character. Lastly, morals are learned through citizenship in the classroom. Teachers expect students to follow certain procedures as part of class management during the school day, just as citizens are expected to follow societies rules which function to maintain a sense of order. Morals are an underlying component of any classroom or society rule. Rules are created based on the belief that people should practice respect, not harm others, and make positive contributions to the community.

Since part of a teacher’s responsibility is to teach academic, social, and moral skills, how do teachers effectively incorporate these skills into the classroom? Richard Hersh proposes that the academic and social climates of the school contribute to effective teaching and effective learning (Ellis, Session 4, p. 10). According to Hersh, effective teachers promote a positive academic climate by using a variety of teaching techniques, ensuring students stay on task to increase instruction time, monitoring student progress, and evaluating assigned homework. (Ellis, Session 4, p. 10). Hersh also provides suggestions for how teachers cultivate a positive social environment. Recommendations include that teachers explain expectations and goals to their students, have high expectations of students, demonstrate a caring disposition toward students, and publically recognize positive student behavior (Ellis, Session 4, p. 10). With this advice, teachers can ensure students are learning academic, social, and moral skills in the classroom and during other interactions in the school community.

When teachers are aware of the responsibility to teach a variety of skills and know how to effectively teach these skills, then teachers can keep these goals in mind during lesson planning and instruction. To successfully teach academic skills, teachers should use grading rubrics to ensure students are accomplishing learning objectives and have students track their own learning goals on individual assessment forms. A thorough grading rubric guarantees students and teachers understand instructional goals and that everyone also knows the performance that is required to reach that level of understanding (Marzano, 2007, p. 23). A rubric is an efficient method for teachers to outline and describe the academic skills that are the purpose of a specific lesson. Teachers should also distribute Student Progress Charts so students monitor their progress after deciding on a learning goal in a particular subject. The Student Progress Chart requires students to choose a goal score to attain at the end of a unit and then student’s track their progress in graph form. (Marzano, 2007, pg. 25-26). This self-assessment is very helpful for students as they learn academic skills because it is a visual guide for them to see what areas they are struggling in compared to areas where progress has been made. Rubrics and student self-assessments are valuable tools for teachers to monitor if academic skills are being learned.

Teaching moral and character skills might not involve such explicit techniques. Instead, to teach these skills, teachers should create a sense of community within the classroom and find opportunities to praise students when their behavior reflects community values. One of the first lesson plans a teacher should include in the beginning of the school year is collaborating with students to create a list of classroom rules. Involving students in the process is critical because it helps students think about why rules are important and how they can demonstrate the behavior described in the rules. Another way teachers may incorporate learning about character and morals is while reading literature or during history lessons. In these examples, teachers should initiate class discussions about character personality traits. If a character in a story did something that negatively impacted themselves or their community, then students might discuss what that character could have done differently. Similarly, when studying history, the class might talk about the character traits or morals of an individual who had a positive impact in history. These discussions help students connect school lessons with the real world. A goal of these lessons is for students to think about the impact of their behavior inside and outside the classroom. When students know their core values then it is easier for students to practice those morals.

It is evident that a student’s education must include lessons that teaching academic skills, along with social and moral skills. When a teacher considers all three skills to be a priority while teaching, then students will likely be better prepared to handle the diverse challenges that occur in every day life. Academic skills are critical for a child to be a successful student, but building character helps students persevere throughout difficult subjects while knowing core values guides student through complicated life situations. Teachers must include the three skill areas for a student to receive a meaningful education.


Question: Of all the individuals and philosophies we have discussed during this course, select one or two whose ideas have influenced you the most. What are those ideas, and what relevance to they have to your own philosophy?

For thousands of years people from around the world have been interested in figuring out the best method to educate others. Philosophers, educators, and scholars have written countless articles, essays, journals, reflections, and performed studies that scrutinize the most effective educational approaches. These resources have provided modern educators with a plethora of information to study, examine, and analyze in the context of present day education and philosophy. When studying these historical methodologies, it is essential to remember that several ideas were likely written for a particular audience and during a time when students tended to be from a similar group. Yet many of the contributions are still relevant in modern society and can be applied in the classroom. Throughout this course, I have been primarily influenced by principles of the Progressive philosophy and the educational contributions of Horace Mann.

Progressivism is an educational approach that centers on the manner in which information should be taught. A progressive philosophy is the belief that students should be taught how to think rather than what to think (Ellis, Session 5, p. 6). Progressivism does not teach students that the purpose of education is to memorize information in order to pass examinations. Instead, when a teacher practices a progressive approach, he or she strives for students to be independent thinkers and learn how to analyze the information they are being taught. The goal is to provide students with the skills necessary to adapt to environments that are constantly changing (Ellis, Session 5, p. 6). This philosophy aligns with one of my teaching goals. I believe students should think about why they are taught certain information and to consider how that information might apply to future situations.

John Dewey, an American educational philosopher, contributed to many of the main principles of progressivism. A few of Dewey’s principles include the belief that education is a lifelong process through active involvement, that students’ interests should guide lessons, and that students require different teaching styles (Scheuerman, Session 8, p. 1). These principles support my teaching philosophy because I want students to develop a passion to continually learn throughout their lifetime. This idea is supported when teachers make lessons relevant to a student’s interests. If a lesson is about a subject a student is interested in, she or he will show more focus, comprehension, retention, and examination about that topic. Teaching lessons relevant to students’ interests persuades them to explore learning opportunities outside the classroom and hopefully become lifelong learners. Teachers can further support lifelong learning when it is recognized that students have different interests and learning styles. These factors should be taken into consideration when teachers are planning lessons. A variety of lessons, activities, and teaching techniques help make learning more relevant to a diverse audience of students.

Horace Mann, who was the first director of the Massachusetts State Board of Education, is influential because he understood the complexities of providing a public education for all students and valued various subjects being taught in school. Mann lived until 1859, yet he envisioned a public school system that is quite comparable to present day. He believed students benefitted from instruction in a range of subjects. In one of Mann’s Annual Reports, he wrote about the importance of lessons in music, health, and physical fitness (Scheuerman, Session 7, p. 1). In modern society, these subjects are included in students’ school schedules, but these classes are often the first to either be eliminated or have reduced instruction time because of budget constraints. While the specific classes might be removed from my students’ schedules, I can still find ways to include these subjects into the general classroom. For example, I can incorporate music into the classroom by reciting lyrics during literature readings or plan for activities that allow students opportunity to move around the classroom. Creativity while lesson planning will help students continue to be exposed to a variety of subjects.

Mann also acknowledged the numerous benefits of living in an educated society. In 1848, in his Twelfth Annual Report, Mann emphasized several community-related advantages of all citizens attending school including that education provides independence, prevents poverty, decreases the class system, and teaches logical thinking, innovation, and socialization (Scheuerman, Session 7, p. 2). This report is influential because Mann’s analysis was written over 160 years ago and it helped provide all children access to an education. These societal advantages continue to be discussed today as the American education system struggles to balance providing an equal education for all students. It is also remarkable that Mann devoted his career to education yet began his professional career as a successful lawyer (Scheuerman, Session 7, p. 1). I think this decision is very inspiring because I strongly believe teaching is my calling in life. Becoming a teacher is a career change for me after working in typical office environment for about five years. I believe that my work experience outside the field of education will help me empathize with parents when figuring out scheduling conflicts and trying to determine the best communication method. My prior experience offers a unique perspective, yet I have a lot to learn from teachers who have always worked in education. Mann’s story has encouraged me that following one’s life calling will lead to success.

The progressive philosophy and the work of Horace Mann have greatly influenced my preparation to become a teacher. One of the greatest lessons is that I must acknowledge how the principles will impact my work. If I am cognizant of why I plan lessons a certain way or practice certain teaching methods, then it helps ensure my students are receiving the benefits of those principles. The progressive approach encourages lifelong learning and this belief is applicable to my personal growth and development. I am open to learning about additional philosophies and instructional techniques to enhance my knowledge Furthermore, when I continue researching educational philosophies and applying new concepts in my lessons and teaching activities, then I am modeling the behavior that I hope my students will develop. My instructional approach will continually change as I gain experience working as a teacher, learn additional educational principles, and observe how my students respond after applying certain techniques. Just like learning is a lifelong process, teaching is a lifelong process of adapting and evolving.